Production from facilities targeted Xpert and mycobacterial culture testing for TB in high-risk groups visiting primary care centers
Author(s): Dr. M Roopa and Dr. G Avinash
Background: We report the yield of targeted universal tuberculosis (TB) testing of clinic attendees in high-risk groups.
Methods: Clinic attendees in primary healthcare facilities in India with one of the following risk factors underwent sputum testing for TB: living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contact with a TB patient in the past year, and having had TB in the past 2 years. A single sample was collected for Xpert-Ultra (Xpert) and culture. We report the proportion positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Data were analyzed descriptively. The unadjusted clinical and demographic factors’ relative risk of TB detected by culture or Xpert were calculated and concordance between Xpert and culture is described.
Results: A total of 30 513 participants had a TB test result. Median age was 39 years, and 11 553 (38%) were men. The majority (n=21734, 71%) were living with HIV, 12 492 (41%) reported close contact with a TB patient, and 1573 (5%) reported prior TB. Overall, 8.3% were positive for M. tuberculosis by culture and/or Xpert compared with 6.0% with trace-positive results excluded. In asymptomatic participants, the yield was 6.7% and 10.1% in symptomatic participants (with trace-positives excluded). Only 10% of trace-positive results were culture-positive. We found that 55% of clinic attendees with a sputum result positive for M. tuberculosis did not have a positive TB symptom screen.
Conclusions: A high proportion of clinic attendees with specific risk factors (HIV, close TB contact, history of TB) test positive for M. tuberculosis when universal testing is implemented.
Dr. M Roopa, Dr. G Avinash. Production from facilities targeted Xpert and mycobacterial culture testing for TB in high-risk groups visiting primary care centers. Int J Adv Res Med 2021;3(2):644-649. DOI: 10.22271/27069567.2021.v3.i2i.463