A clinical study of different causes in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss
Author(s): Dr. Saritha HM and Dr. Jagadeeswaran VU
Background: Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) is important to be identified and diagnosed early. It is common and can be a symptom of a wide range of diseases. In our region, south India, the USNHL has not been studied before. In this study we report different causes of this entity.
Method and Aim: This is a Prospective observational Hospital based study, review of 50 patient with USNHL in the age group above 18yrs. We aim to find the risk factors, causes, common presentationn of USNHL in the south India and comparing the result with a literature review.
Result: It was found, 50 cases were presented with unilateral SNHL during the study period. It constitutes 15% of cases screened. Most of our cases had gradual onset of hearing loss. Tinnitus, vertigo and ear discharge were the most common associated symptoms respectively. On audiological assessment: PTA at time of investigation, severe hearing loss (46%). Etiologies of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere's disease (28%), Metabolic (24%), Sudden SNHL (22%), idiopathic (20%), Acoustic neuroma (4%) and Left COM, squamosal disease (2%). MRI was done in all 50 cases with unilateral SNHL, in 4 cases it found to be abnormal. ENG was done in 35 of cases of which it is abnormal in 30 cases, Left Hypo active labyrinth (48.6%).
Conclusion: All patients with USNHL need full audiological screening and early diagnosis. Regarding our study, we recommend MRI as part of their diagnostic workup. The choice of diagnostic laboratory tests should be directed by patient risk factors and exposures.