Cardiac manifestations in cases with systemic lupus erythematosus: A prospective study
Author(s): Dr. Chandulal and Dr. R Venkat Naik
Abstract: Cardiovascular complications are common cause of mortality on cases with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both idiopathic and drug induced lupus have cardiac manifestations. The present study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular manifestations in cases with systemic lupus erythematosus. A total of 64 clinically and serologically diagnosed cases of systemic lupus erythematosus above 21 years of age were recruited. Clinical and serological examination was performed to assess the study participants. All the cases were subjected to ECG and chest X-ray and later were subjected to echocardiography to assess all the cardiac features. Majority cases were in between 21-30 years (32.1%) followed by 31-40 years (28.1%). 54.68% cases had disease >5 years and 45.31% cases had disease <5 years. 46.87% cases had oral and nasal ulcers, followed by chest pain (37.5%), dyspnoea (31.25%), photosensitivity (17.1%), Raynaud phenomenon (17.1%), arthralgia (15.6%), palpitations (15.6%), seizures (12.5%), syncope (10.9%) and myalgia (7.81%). Echo findings showed that 6 cases had systolic dysfunction, 4 cases had diastolic dysfunction, 7 cases had regional hypokinesia, 6 cases had global hypokinesia, 22 cases had pericardial effusion, 4 cases had pericardial thickening, 10 cases had mitral valve prolapse syndrome, 1 case had mitral stenosis, 16 cases had mitral regurgitation, 9 cases had aortic thickening, 6 cases had aortic regurgitation, 10 cases had tricuspid regurgitation, 11 cases had pulmonary hypertension and 1 case had pulmonary stenosis. Pericarditis and pericardial effusion was the most common cardiovascular manifestation and global hypokinesia was least common cardiac manifestation.