International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine
2021, Vol. 3, Issue 2, Part C
Correlation between serum vitamin-d and essential hypertension
Author(s): Dr. Samina Tarannum
Background: Inadequate vitamin D affects about 50% of the world's population. Hypovitaminosis D pandemic may largely be attributed to lifestyles and environmental conditions which limit exposure to sun. Adequate exposure to sunlight is necessary for synthesis of ultraviolet-B (UVB) - induced vitamin-D in the skin.
Objective: To study the correlation between the level of vitamin- D and the presence of essential hypertension in patients presenting to a hospital.
Methods: The subjects were segregated into two groups: Group 1 (case group) - 50 patients with essential hypertension, Group 2 (control group) - 50 ostensibly healthy individuals. Each subject was interviewed and a standardized questionnaire was answered and completed, which included demographics, anthropometric profile, individual characteristics associated with major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, past medical history, sun exposure details (type of job and average time spent in the sun per day), and biochemical parameters. Hypertension was documented based on disclosure of known hypertensive patients self-reporting on out-patient visit or newly diagnosed hypertensives based on physician measurements. Vitamin D levels were measured from a venous sample taken at the time of hospital visit.
Results: The control group comprised 50 patients, 34 of whom were male and 16 of whom were female, and 50 hypertensive patients, 36 of whom were male and 14 of whom were female. There was no significant difference in the gender distribution of the study and control groups (P=0.8272). The hypertensive group had an age of 58.7+9.3 years and the normotensive group 60.5+5.3 years. There was no statistically significant difference. The normotensive and hypertensive patients studied had no significant differences in height, weight, or BMI (p > 0.05). The normotensive group's systolic and diastolic blood pressures (114±5.89 and 75.0±5.0) were considerably lower than the hypertensive group's (162.10±16.5 and 95.90±9.30).
Conclusion: Vitamin D and essential hypertension have an inverse relationship. When systolic and diastolic blood pressure were considered as continuous variables, a substantial relationship of high blood pressures corelating with low vitamin-D levels was observed. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy was also shown to be correlated to hypovitaminosis D.